HOME •  POETRY AND PHOTOS •  ESSAYS •  WRITING EXCERPTS •  FREE CONCERTS  LINKS • 2005 EXTRAS


   NEW ESSAY SERIES FOR 2005!

Blue Roses, Green Cars and More: What Color is Your Future?

NEW! NEW! NEW!

CLICK HERE TO REACH THE ESSAY ARCHIVES

THIS SUMMER'S FEATURED ARTISTS

2005 WEBSITE SPECIAL GUESTS

Guest Painter
Click Here
Guest Poet
Click Here
Guest Photographer
Click Here



ESSAYS

2005 ESSAY SERIES:
"BLUE ROSES, GREEN CARS AND MORE . . . WHAT COLOR IS YOUR FUTURE?"



September 2005 Essay:

WILL YOU BE SINGING THE TV BLACK BOX BLUES?

The Transition to Digital Television in the U.S.


(Click on the TV set to go to the September essay, or continue scrolling down the page.)




Introduction to the 2005 Essay Series

Roses are blue, Violets are red, If that sounds a little different, Then please read ahead.

     Bet you never thought of yourself as a revolutionary, did you? If you're sitting here reading this on a computer after having made your way to a site on the Internet, then you might want to consider yourself one. You are a direct participant in one of the most significant changes in information and communication technology not only in the last 50 years, but ever. Like millions of others around the world, you found computers and the Internet useful enough to incorporate them into your life -- in a way virtually impossible even fifteen years ago.

     When this site was first launched in 2003, it was as a computer exercise and little else. The inaugural issues weren't designed to be the start of a collection of works to fill a website. With last year's series on genetically modified (GM) foods and this summer's new articles, however, a theme for the section has taken root. Each summer, for as long as the site stays in existence, the essays will look at some aspect of technological change, but with a consumer bent. To the extent possible, the essays will be short pieces bringing you information on subjects with relevance to your daily lives now and perhaps in the near future. This year's works will be on different topics within the "What Color is Your Future?" theme each month instead of a series on only one subject.

     So what does this have to do with a blue rose? Any rose lover knows that the flowers come in a tantalizing array of colors of nearly every shade - except blue. The rose is even this country's national flower. The proclamation declaring it as such (see 36 U.S.C. 187) reads:

    Americans have always loved the flowers with which God decorates our land. More often than any other flower, we hold the rose dear as the symbol of life and love and devotion, of beauty and eternity. For the love of man and woman, for the love of mankind and God, for the love of country, Americans who would speak the language of the heart do so with a rose.

    We see proofs of this everywhere. The study of fossils reveals that the rose has existed in America for age upon age. We have always cultivated roses in our gardens. Our first president, George Washington, bred roses, and a variety he named after his mother is still grown today. The White House itself boasts a beautiful Rose Garden. We grow roses in all our fifty States. We find roses throughout our art, music and literature. We decorate our celebrations and parades with roses. Most of all, we present roses to those we love, and we lavish them on our altars, our civil shrines, and the final resting places of our honored dead.

    The American people have long held a special place in their hearts for roses. Let us continue to cherish them, to honor the love and devotion they represent, and to bestow them on all we love just as God has bestowed them on us.

     Rose breeders have been trying for years to produce a blue flower by conventional means, but to no avail. The plants simply do not carry the gene coding for the color. Earlier this year an Australian company, Florigene (once U.S. company Calgene, the creators and marketers of the first biotech tomato, now part of the Suntory Brewing Company of Japan), announced its employees had created the world's first blue roses using biotechnology. A gene coding for the blue color was inserted, and the outcome was the flowers you can see in the "news" section of Florigene's website (www.florigene.com).

     Are the roses available now? No. It may be another several years before they reach the market. Until then, Florigene representative say the company will be working to make the flowers a "clearer" (more true) blue. But will consumers buy them when they arrive, particularly if they are sold at a premium price? That remains to be seen -- and that is partly what these essays are about.

     As is stated in the Florigene "news" section, blue roses were once thought of as a synonym for the impossible. And so it is with many technologies like biotechnology -- new products or processes make things possible which once might never have been imagined. Sometimes the results are positive, sometimes negative, and there are often intended as well as unintended consequences as the new technology becomes part of daily life and culture.

"Bruges Canals" 1984, 2005 Dorothy A. Birsic

     Neil Postman, in his book "Technopoly" (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992, p. 7), says that "once a technology is admitted, it plays out its hand; it does what it is designed to do. Our task is to understand what that design is - that is to say when we admit a new technology to the culture, we must do so with our eyes wide open." You may never have any say in what strategies companies pursue, what technologies or products they choose to develop, or how they decide to market them to you. You do, however, make decisions every day on how to best spend your money on the products available to you. It is hoped that these essays may open your eyes a bit to changes taking place in the world around you, and as a consumer what part you can play in shaping that world.

     No one can say with any certainty which new technologies will revolutionize the future and in what ways. Still, changes in fields like computer and information technology, biotechnology and (soon) nanotechnology are already beginning to shape the world in which your children and grandchildren will live.

     Consider, once again, the extent to which in the last 10 years biotechnology has come to play a part in this country's agriculture and food system. If you read the June essay, "Golden Rice, Yellow Maize and Amber Waves of Grain: A 2005 Update on the GM Foods Debate," you'll find that now about 85% of all soybeans, 45% of all corn and about 76% of all upland cotton planted in the U.S. are from genetically modified seeds. Biotechnology also continues to play an increasingly greater role in pharmaceuticals and medicine, with an added possibility now of growing plants modified to produce pharmaceuticals or industrial chemicals (see Part II of last year's essays).

     It was in 1986, ten years before the first plantings of GM crops that Congress designated the rose the national floral emblem of the United States. Today, nearly 10 years after those first GM crops were sown, it seems fitting, almost poetic, that the country's national flower will soon be available not only in red and white, but also biotech blue.


SEPTEMBER 2005 ESSAY

WILL YOU BE SINGING THE TV BLACK BOX BLUES? THE TRANSITION TO DIGITAL TELEVISION IN THE U.S.

    *As with the previous essays, the following is an interactive essay. Although it can be read as is, links are embedded at various points in the article. By clicking the link you can read more about the particular topic being discussed, then return to the essay by clicking your browser's "back" arrow. (The links are included for information purposes only. No guarantees are made as to the accuracy of the materials presented on the sites, although every effort has been made to search out reliable and respected sources of information.) Footnotes and a bibliography are also included at the end for anyone wishing to learn more about the subject. The materials represented here are only a small fraction of what is available on this issue. The glossary link below has been provided as a reference for use as needed. If your browser does not allow you to see text in the box, click here to reach the glossary.*

    Picture the following scenario in the not too distant future: You've had a busy week or two and haven't seen the news in a while. Thinking you might watch the morning news while you have a cup of coffee, you head to the kitchen and turn on the TV. Instead of getting a picture, however, you get nothing but a blank screen. You call the repair shop, and the first thing the person on the other end of the line asks is "Is your television set digital or analog?" "Why?" you reply. The person explains, "Well, the nation has just switched to all-digital television broadcasts. Your old analog television will no longer work without a converter box that lets you receive and view the digital transmissions!"

    Is this science fiction? No. For nearly a decade the nation's TV broadcasters, carriers, manufacturers and retailers have been in the process of shifting away from traditional analog broadcasts and television receivers to digital television (DTV), including high-definition television (HDTV). Although full transition was originally scheduled for 2006, it is now likely that Congress will push the date back to 2009. At that point all analog broadcasts will cease. Owners of television sets not equipped to receive over-the-air (OTA) digital broadcasts will be forced to either purchase converter boxes to use with their old televisions, buy new televisions, or subscribe to a cable or satellite service enabling them to view the digital programming.

    The transition to digital television has been a lengthy - and sometimes contentious - process involving the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Congress, broadcasters, industry, consumers, retailers, and virtually all involved in the production, transmission and distribution of television programming. It has been said of the change that it is perhaps "the largest gamble ever undertaken by any industry," (n1) and one which presents "marketing and technological challenges of daunting proportions." (n2) This month's essay will focus on the transition to DTV -- its history, current timetable, and implications for consumers both now and in the years ahead.

Analog vs. Digital

    Since television's inception, the system used to transmit and display pictures and sound has been analog, using radio frequency waves to deliver and display the images on a screen. It was a system developed in the 1930s, and it produced a picture with a horizontal-to-vertical (width to height) aspect ratio of 4:3, the proportions of the image still used in today's conventional television systems. (n3) Each of the images of those systems is composed of a series of horizontal lines, the picture's definition. In 1941, the U.S. adopted the 525-line National Television System Committee (NTSC) standard (n4), and current analog pictures provide a resolution of about 480 horizontal lines. (n5).

    Digital television systems also use radio frequency waves to deliver and display images, but the image information is encoded. The "digital system represents the information content of [a] picture as a series of numbers specifying the color and brightness of each point in [an] image . . . Picture information can then be manipulated (modified, adjusted, corrected, etc.) by digital signal processing techniques and/or stored in memory, . . . similar to the way computers manipulate and store data." (n6) [To learn more about analog vs. digital, especially some of the benefits of digital systems, click here, or go to www.pbs.org/opb/crashcourse/digital_v_analog.]

    There are three different levels of digital picture quality:

  • Standard Definition TV (SDTV): Basic digital television that may be displayed with fewer than 480 progressively scanned lines (480p) in a "widescreen" 16:9 aspect ratio or standard 4:3 format.

  • Enhanced Definition TV (EDTV): A better digital television transmission than SDTV with at least 480p, in a 16:9 "widescreen" or 4:3 display with Dolby digital surround sound. 480p is the quality used by most DVD players.

  • High Definition TV (HDTV): The best quality digital picture, a widescreen (16"9) display with at least 720 progressively scanned lines (720p) or 1080 interlaced lines (1080i) and Dolby digital surround sound. (n7)

     Some may think that the impetus for the move to digital television came from the computer or telecommunications industries. It did not. The roots of the nation's switch to digital came as the result of a perceived threat from Japanese-developed HDTV in the 1980s.

"Dubrovnik Walls and Harbor" 1984, 2005 Dorothy A. Birsic

The Development of Digital TV in the U.S.

    Back in the early- to mid-1980s, the Internet as we know it today did not exist, and personal computers were only beginning to gain widespread use. By the start of the decade, however, televisions were in about 98% of U.S. households, with an average of about two sets per home. (n8) At the time when the Japanese first demonstrated their HDTV system in the U.S., the Japanese were "already manufacturing about one-third of the television sets sold in America." (n9) "All U.S.-owned firms, except Zenith, [had] abandoned the TV receiver manufacturing business . . . [and] little work [was being done here] on HDTV." (n10) In addition, in the period between 1980 and 1990, VCRs went from being found in about one percent of American households to nearly 70%. (n11) Although an American firm, Ampex, had invented the video cassette recorder, "by 1987 Japan and Korea had sold more than 100 million VCRs around the world, [a] story [which] was a dark legend in the consumer electronics industry." (n12) In other words, tensions were already running high regarding the ability of U.S. firms to compete with the Japanese in certain industries.

    With its pictures of previously unseen clarity, HDTV came to be touted "as the greatest technological advance since the invention of television itself. It was also seen by many at the time as a necessary step [for the U.S. to pursue] to keep pace with the Japanese, who were perceived as having a significant lead in the technology." (n13). Between the late 1980s and early 1990s, materials on HDTV became so pervasive that cases on the subject were even being taught at some of the nation's top business schools. One note accompanying 1990 course materials at the Harvard Business School indicated that, "Many observers predict that HDTV will be the largest consumer electronics segment of the late 1990s and early 21st [sic] century. What the U.S. government decides on a variety of trade and industrial policies will have a critical impact on whether Japanese, European or American producers gain advantage in the U.S. market for this product." (n14) HDTV had become not just an issue for consumers and the marketplace but a matter for government policy as well.

    During this same time the nation's broadcasters also became concerned about what effect HDTV might have on them. "In 1987, 58 broadcasting organizations petitioned the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to initiate proceedings to explore the issues arising from the possible introduction of advanced television technologies . . . At the time it was believed that high-definition television (HDTV) could not be broadcast in a standard television channel, which is 6 MHz (megahertz) wide," (n15) and the Japanese had announced their HDTV system was being re-designed for the U.S. market. This petition led to the FCC's subsequent creation of the ACATS, or Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Service.

    When the ACATS announced it would accept proposals for a U.S. HDTV standard, it set into motion a competition of sorts. Nearly two dozen applications were submitted for consideration as the U.S. HDTV standard. Most were for partially or fully analog systems, as was the Japanese system. The prevailing sentiment in much of the broadcasting community at the time was that "We'll have digital TV the same day as we have an anti-gravity machine." (n16)

    To the surprise of all, and in a major breakthrough for the period, an engineer at General Instruments devised a fully digital system and submitted a proposal to ACATS for its consideration. Eventually, after all system prototypes were tested, there was no one clear winner selected. The four finalists, however, formed what was referred to as the "Grand Alliance," and together the developed what became the basis for DTV/HDTV in the U.S. today.

The FCC and Congress

    Once a standard had been established, broadcasters argued to the FCC and Congress that they would need time to both alter their equipment for digital transmissions and begin creating and airing programming in the format. Given the nation's tradition of free over-the-air (OTA) television programming, broadcasters argued that they would need an additional 6 MHz portion of the broadcast spectrum so as to be able to broadcast both digital and analog signals until the time that the transition to digital television was complete. At that point analog broadcasts would cease, and the additional 6 MHz of the spectrum would be returned to the government and the people of the U.S.

    The FCC developed digital television rules, and legislative provisions for the transition were written into the Telecommunications Act of 1996. (n17) A target date for full transition was set for 2006 with a requirement for evaluation of the advanced television services program within 10 years after the date the licenses were issued. The provision was amended slightly in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. A clause was added stating that analog broadcasts would cease in 2006 or whenever 85% of homes were able to receive digital programming, whichever was later.

"Sunset, Margarita Island Venezuela" 1998, 2004 Dorothy A. Birsic

    The entire plan was not without critics, including "Senate Commerce Committee Chairman John McCain (R-Arizona) and former Senate majority leader Robert Dole; liberal and conservative citizens' groups; and rival industries." (n18) Ralph Nader-affiliated groups called the spectrum give-away "a $70 billion corporate welfare bonanza," (n19) and in a New York Times article on March 27, 1997, Bob Dole referred to the give-away as "a fleecing of the taxpayers." (n20) The reason? In prior years the government had auctioned off portions of the broadcast spectrum to other telecommunications entities raising billions of dollars for the government. Estimates of the value of the portion of the spectrum given to broadcasters were placed at $12 - 70 billion, (n21) an amount critics argued could be used toward paying down the national deficit.

The Schedule Slips

    The nation's transition to digital television involves major changes in three areas: 1) broadcast stations (antennas, towers, equipment, etc.), 2) digital programming (different equipment is necessary to produce HDTV programming than analog programming, and digital content must be created), and 3) consumer purchases of DTV/HDTV-compatible receivers and/or compatible transmission service. (n22) By the year 2000 the complexity of the transition and associated problems were already apparent, so much so that one Congressman remarked, " . . . there is no longer a soul in the industry who thinks this transition will be over by 2006." (n23)

    The matter was revisited in Congress in 2002 prompting the following remarks from Congressman Edward Markey of Massachusetts. In his comments he highlights not only problems underlying the transition, but also perceived costs in other areas due to the delay.

    "The digital television transition is woefully behind schedule, and quite simply will not conclude by the original target date of 2006. It is also apparent that the slowness of the transition is holding back two important telecommunications revolutions. First, the lack of meaningful progress in DTV transition impedes the growth of various industries in the interactive television marketplace, including high-tech manufacturers, software engineers, and content providers. Second, the fact that broadcasters will not return to the government their current analog broadcasting frequencies any time soon means that a new generation of wireless technologies and services is also thwarted from reaching the marketplace. Both the interactive TV and wireless revolutions that are unnecessarily delayed by the glacial pace of the DTV transition could greatly contribute to economic growth, innovation and job creation.

    We must admit that at its core the DTV transition represents a government-driven policy, not a purely market-driven phenomenon, and it is therefore imperative that government create the conditions and environment for policy success, especially given the current economic slump. It is important for the FCC and the subcommittee to follow through on the DTV policy we set in motion several years ago in ways that serve the consumer interest.

    Government action to accelerate the DTV transition would send a strong signal to entrepreneurs and [the] investment community that Federal policymakers are committed to creating an environment where the technology sector can once again drive growth and prosperity in the American economy. Failure to do this is unfair to consumers and to taxpayers but is also unfair to the various high-tech industries with a stake in the future of television and a new generation of wireless services that could operate using frequencies that the broadcasters ultimately give back." (n24)

    That same year (2002) the FCC (http://www.fcc.gov/) took a major step in addressing the availability of DTV-compatible (but not necessarily HDTV-compatible) television receivers for the general public. In its Second Report and Order and Second Memorandum and Opinion Order (n25), the FCC mandated a phased-in schedule under which all new television broadcast receivers must include the capability of receiving over-the-air (OTA) digital television (DTV) broadcast signals. This has been referred to as the "DTV tuner requirement." In the original order, by July 1, 2007, all new television receivers with screens 13 inches or larger must include DTV tuners. The same date was applied to 100% of other receiver devices (VCRs, DVD players, etc.) that receive OTA broadcast television signals.

    It is important to make the distinction here again between DTV and HDTV. The receivers mandated by the FCC order "are required only to provide usable picture and sound commensurate with their video and audio capabilities when receiving DTV signals." (n26) This means that anyone wishing to receive the highest quality OTA HDTV signals would still need to purchase HDTV-specific equipment in order to view free OTA broadcasts in HDTV format.

    And what is the cost of HDTV-specific equipment? "Four years ago the average retail price for an HDTV monitor (without a tuner/decoder) was in the range of $2,200. Today that price has dropped by a third to around $1,400 . . . The price drop is more dramatic for integrated HDTV receivers [which include tuner/decoders] . . . Today a . . . 61-inch model can be found for under $3,000 - a 62% price reduction since the DTV transition began." (n27)

    Congress is expected sometime this month to set the new and final date for the end of analog television transmissions. Last year the Media Bureau of the FCC proposed a date of January 1, 2009. (n28) Senate Commerce Committee Chairman Ted Stevens has confirmed that the date is likely to be in 2009, (n29) and industry publication Broadcasting and Cable has reported that the date is "expected to be June or July 2009." (n30)

DTV, HDTV and the Consumer

    What this all means for television viewers is likely to depend on how each individual household receives television signals. In general, the three primary means of viewing TV broadcasts in the U.S. are OTA, cable, and direct broadcast satellite (DBS). According to U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) statistics released earlier this year, "19 percent, or roughly 21 million American households, rely exclusively on OTA transmissions for their television viewing; 57 percent, or nearly 64 million American households, view television via a cable service; and about 19 percent, or about 20 million American households, have a subscription to a DBS service." (n31). Since digital programming policies vary from service to service, it is suggested that cable and DBS subscribers contact their providers directly for information concerning DTV and HDTV transmission and receiver compatibility.

    Consumer groups such as Consumers Union are of the opinion that "any conversion to digital television must ensure that the analog sets now in use will continue to function after the transition without imposing additional costs on the consumer." (n32) In order to ease the transition for households relying solely on OTA transmissions for television programming, it has been proposed that a government subsidy be established for consumer purchases of the set-top boxes which would be used to convert digital signals for viewing on existing analog televisions. Manufacturers estimate that if mass produced such converters would sell for about $50 - $100. (n33) In principle there appears to be little objection to subsidies for converters as a means of speeding the DTV transition, especially if funds for the subsidies were to come from proceeds of the eventual spectrum auction. At issue, however, is to whom subsidies would be provided and in what amount. Would they be available to all OTA households or means tested for low-income households only? Who would administer the program and at what cost? To read more about the set-top boxes and possible subsidy programs, visit the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-258T.

Environmental Issues

    In 2002 there were 254 million television sets in U.S homes. (n34) As was noted in Consumer Reports last month, "The digital transition means Americans will be discarding millions of TVs. Their components can be hazardous and must be disposed of carefully." (n35) The recycling of all electronic waste products, not just televisions, has become a major issue throughout the U.S. To begin addressing the problem in California, as of January 1 of this year, an Electronic Waste Recycling Fee is being added to the retail purchase price of certain electronic display products. The fee ranges from $6 to $10, and products on which it is levied include computer monitors and LCD and plasma TV screens. To learn more about the program, visit http://www.erecycle.org/. (Information on the site is also available in Spanish.)

"Colossus of the Nile, Vatican Museums" 1984; 2005 Dorothy A. Birsic

Links and Further Information

    The following list of websites is offered for those interested in learning more about DTV and HDTV, especially those considering purchasing a new DTV-compatible system. The list is by no means exhaustive; it is presented as a starting point for further information on the transition to digital television.

  • www.dtv.gov - The FCC's official DTV website. The site provides information on virtually all aspects of DTV and includes some information in Spanish.

  • www.checkHD.com - Also accessible through www.nab.org, the site allows a person to view HDTV program listings, antenna and other information by zip code.

  • www.HearUsNow.org - The Consumers Union (publishers of Consumer Reports) public policy website for telecommunication issues, including HDTV

  • www.antennaweb.org - Helps identify which antenna you'll need for OTA digital broadcasts. Also has a link to an HDTV consumers guide.

  • www.ceretailers.org - Main page includes a link to a pdf "Tip Sheet for Buying a Digital Television." The same document is also available through the "Shoppers Guide" link at www.dtv.gov

  • Consumer electronics retailers sites such as www.bestbuy.com can carry significant information on the HDTV products they sell. Also, the Sony Style store in South Coast Plaza offers an in-store HDTV tutorial. Contact the store directly for further information.

Conclusion

     The shift from analog to digital television is a major hurdle for a medium which will undoubtedly be evolving for many years to come. Setting a firm date for the end of the transition may bring a sense of finality to a process begun nearly twenty years ago. In some ways, however, it is only the first chapter in the story of a digital future which is still being written.

     Few who have experienced the near life-like image clarity and theater-quality sound of HDTV broadcasts, especially on large, wide-screen monitors, would question the remarkable nature of the images presented. What seems remarkably absent from the transition process, however, is a full explanation to the American public as to how their interests are best served in the switch from analog to digital television. If a survey was taken tomorrow, it would be interesting to know not only how many people are actually aware of the transition (which was originally scheduled to end next year), but also how many fully understand the options available to them outside of purchasing complex, thousand-dollar HDTV systems.

     There are signs, from the FCC's DTV website to consumer "tip sheets" beginning to appear in retail outlets, that the need to educate the public on digital television is being recognized. The sooner the process begins the better, so that when the final date for analog broadcasts arrives TV viewers are not left "singing the TV black box blues."


FOOTNOTES - The following are the footnotes indicated in the text in parentheses with the letter "n" and a number. If you click the asterisk at the end of the footnote, it will take you back to the paragraph where you left off.

n1 - Testimony of David D. Smith in "High Definition Television," hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, 105th Congress, 1st Session, September 17, 1997, Senate Hearing 105-826. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), 1999, p. 40 (*)

n2 - Testimony of Joseph J. Collins in "Transition to HDTV," hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, 105th Congress, 2nd Session, July 8, 1998, Senate Hearing 105 - 1005. Washington D.C.: U.S. GPO, 1998, p. 27 (*)

n3 - Robin, Michael and Poulin, Michel, Digital Television Fundamentals, 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 1 (*)

n4 - Ibid. (*)

n5 - Federal Communication Commission (FCC), Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, "Digital Television: FCC Consumer Facts." Available on FCC website at www.fcc.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/digitaltv.html. Viewed 8/23/05. (*)

n6 - U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, The Big Picture: HDTV and High Resolution Systems, OTA-BP-CIT-64, Washington D.C., U.S. GPO, June 1990, p. 52 (*)

n7 - Federal Communications Commission/Consumer Electronics Association/Consumer Retailers Coalition, Buying a Digital Television Fact Sheet, available at www.dtv.gov, click shoppers guide, or at www.ceretailers.org (*)

n8 - "Table 1120: Utilization of Selected Media: 1970 - 2002," U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2004-2005, Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, October 2004, p. 717 (*)

n9 - Brinkley, Joel, Defining Vision: The Battle for the Future of Television, New York/San Diego: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1997, p. 23 (*)

n10 - U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, p. 7 (*)

n11 - U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract, p. 717 (*)

n12 - Brinkley, p. 24 (*)

n13 - Testimony of Games Gattuso in "Transition to Digital Television," hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, 107th Congress, 1st Session, Senate Hearing 107-1103, March 1, 2001, Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, p. 64 (*)

n14 - Course Syllabus - Managing International Trade and Competition, Harvard Business School, Cambridge: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration, Spring 1990, p. 8 (*)

n15 - Boston, Jim, DTV Survival Guide, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 2 (*)

n16 - Brinkley, p. 127 (*)

n17 - See 110 Stat. 56 - 161, "The Telecommunications Act of 1996," Title Two - Broadcast Services, Section 336: Broadcast Spectrum Flexibility (47 USC 336) (*)

n18 - Fleming, Heather, "DTV Critics March On," Broadcasting and Cable, Vol. 127, No. 14, April 7, 1997, p. 11 (*)

n19 - Ibid. (*)

n20 - "Transition to Digital Television," U.S. Senate Hearing, March 1, 2001, p. 52 (*)

n21 - Ibid. (*)

n22 - Ibid., pp. 4 - 5 (*)

n23 - "High Definition Television and Related Matters," Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade and Consumer Protection, Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, 106th Congress, Second Session, July 25, 2000, Serial No. 106-143, Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO 2000, p. 3 (*)

n24 - "Staff Discussion Draft on the Transition to Digital Television," Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 107th Congress, Second Session, September 25, 2002, Serial No. 107-141, Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO 2002, p. 3 (*)

n25 - See Federal Communications Commission, Second Report and Order and Second Memorandum and Opinion and Order in MM Docket No. 00-39, 19 FCC Rcd 15978 (2002) at 8-46 (*)

n26 - Federal Communications Commission, Background, Report and Order of Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, ET Docket No. 5-24, FCC 05-121, June 9, 2005. Also available through www.dtv.gov (*)

n27 - Statement of David H. Arland in "Preparing Consumers for the End of the Digital Television Transition," hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 109th Congress, 1st Session, March 10, 2005, Serial No. 109-5, Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, p. 21 (*)

n28 - Testimony of Kenneth Ferree, "Completing the Digital Television Transition," hearing before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, June 9, 2004. Available at http://commerce.senate.gov/hearings/testimony.cfm?id=1220&wit_id=3513. Viewed 9/7/2005 (*)

n29 - Senator Ted Stevens, Remarks at the Federal Communications Bar Association's Annual Meeting, June 6, 2005. Available at http://commerce.senate.gov/newsroom/printable.cfm?id=238489. Viewed 9/4/2005 (*)

n30 - Eggerton, John, "DTV Bill Tops Busy DC Docket; FCC, Congress Have Full Plate for Fall Season," Broadcasting and Cable, Vol. 135, No. 35, August 29, 2005, p. 6 (*)

n31 - Statement of Mark L. Goldstein, "The Role of Technology in Achieving a Hard Deadline for the DTV Transition," hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 109th Congress, 1st Session, February 17, 2005, Serial No. 109-9. Also available (pdf) at www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-258T, p. 3 (*)

n32 - "Viewpoint: You Shouldn't Have to Pay for Digital-TV Transition," Consumer Reports, Vol. 70, No. 8, August 2005, p. 61 (*)

n33 - Testimony of Gene Kimmelman, "Digital Television Transition", hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, July 12, 2005. Available at http://commerce.senate.gov/hearings/testimony.cfm?id=1568&wit_id=2054. Also testimony of Dr. Jong Kim and K. James Yager, "The Role of Technology in Achieving a Hard Deadline for the DTV Transition," hearings before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, February 17, 2005. Both available at http://energycommerce.house.gov/108/Hearings/02172005hearing1435/hearing.htm. See also Footnote 31. (*)

n34 - U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract, p. 717(*)

n35 - "Viewpoint: You Shouldn't Have to Pay for Digital-TV Transition," p. 61 (*)


LINKS INCLUDED IN ESSAY

  • Glossary - www.dtv.gov/glossary.html

  • Digital vs. Analog Crash Course - www.pbs.org/opb/crashcourse/digital_v_analog

  • Federal Communications Commission - www.fcc.gov

  • Goldstein Testimony from Government Accountability Office (GAO) - www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-258T or www.gao.gov, search report GAO-05-258T

  • California E-Waste Recycling - www.erecycle.org

  • FCC Digital Television website - www.dtv.gov

  • HDTV Program Listings and other information by Zip Code - www.checkHD.com

  • Consumers Union public policy website - www.HearUsNow.org

  • Digital Television Antenna information - www.antennaweb.org

  • CERC - www.ceretailers.org

  • Retailer site - www.bestbuy.com


BIBLIOGRAPHY - The following is the bibliography for the September essay on the transition to digital television in the United States.

Boston, Jim. DTV Survival Guide. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000

Brice, Richard. Newnes Guide to Digital Television. Oxford and Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann/Reed Educational and Professional Publishing, Ltd., 2000

Brinkley, Joel. Defining Vision: The Battle for the Future of Television. New York/San Diego: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1997

"Completing the Digital Television Transition," hearing before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, June 9, 2004. Available at http://commerce.senate.gov/hearings/testimony.cfm?id=1220&wit_id=3513. Viewed 9/7/2005. Full witness list available at http://commerce.senate.gov/hearings/witnesslist.cfm?id=1220

Course Syllabus - Managing International Trade and Competition, Harvard Business School. Cambridge: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration, Spring 1990

"Digital Television Transition," hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, July 12, 2005. Available at http://commerce.senate.gov/hearings/testimony.cfm?id=1568&wit_id=2054. (Kimmelman)

Eggerton, John. "DTV Bill Tops Busy D.C. Docket; FCC, Congress Have Full Plate for Fall Season," Broadcasting and Cable, Vol. 135, No. 35, August 29, 2005, p. 61

Federal Communications Commission, Report and Order of Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, ET Docket No. 5-24, FCC 05-121, June 9, 2005. Also available through www.dtv.gov

Federal Communications Commission, Second Report and Order/Second Memorandum and Opinion and Order, MM Docket No. 00-39, 19 FCC Record 15978 (2002) at 8-46

Federal Communications Commission, Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, "Digital Television: FCC Consumer Facts." Available on FCC website at www.fcc.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/digitaltv.html. Viewed 8/23/05.

Federal Communications Commission, Consumer Electronics Association and Consumer Electronics Retail Coalition, "Buying a Digital Television Fact Sheet." Available at www.dtv.gov, click shoppers' guide, or at www.ceretailers.org

Fleming, Heather. "DTV Critics March On," Broadcasting and Cable, Vol. 127, No. 14, April 7, 1997, p. 11

Goldstein, Mark. Digital Broadcasting Television Transition - Estimated Cost of Supporting Set-Top Boxes to Help Advance the DTV Transition." GAO-05-258T. Washington, D.C.: Government Accountability Office (GAO), February 17, 2005

Hart, Jeffrey A. Technology, Television and Competition: The Politics of Digital TV. Cambridge: University Press, 2004

Hartwig, Robert L. Basic TV Technology: Digital and Analog, 3rd Edition. Boston: Focal Press, 2000

"High Definition Televison," hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, 105th Congress, First Session, September 17, 1997, Senate Hearing 105-826. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, 1999

"High Definition Television and Related Matters," hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade and Consumer Protection, Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, 106th Congress, Second Session, July 25, 2000, Serial No. 106-143. Washington D.C.: U.S. GPO, 2000

"Preparing Consumers for the End of the Digital Television Transition," hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 109th Congress, First Session, March 10, 2005, Serial No. 109-5. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, 2005

Robin, Michael and Poulin, Michel. Digital Television Fundamentals, 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000

"Staff Discussion Draft on the Transition to Digital Television," hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 107th Congress, Second Session, September 25, 2002, Serial No. 107-141, Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, 2002

Stevens, Senator Ted. Remarks at the Federal Communications Bar Association's Annual Meeting, June 6, 2005. Available at http://commerce.senate.gov/newsroom/printable.cfm?id=238489. Viewed 9/4/2005.

"The Role of Technology in Achieving a Hard Deadline for the DTV Transition," hearings before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 109th Congress, First Session, February 17, 2005, Serial No. 109-9. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, 2005. Also available at http://energycommerce.house.gov/108/Hearings/02172005hearing1435/hearing.htm

"The Telecommunications Act of 1996," Title Two, Broadcast Services. 110 Stat 56-161; 47 USC 336

"Transition to Digital Television," hearings before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, 107th Congress, First Session, Senate Hearing 107-1103, March 1, 2001, Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO

"Transition to HDTV," hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, 105th Congress, 2nd Session, July 8, 1998, Senate Hearing 105-1005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, 1998

U.S. Census Bureau. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, October 2004

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. The Big Picture: HDTV and High Resolution Systems. OTA-BP-CIT-64. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, June 1990

"Viewpoint: You Shouldn't Have to Pay for Digital-TV Transition," Consumer Reports, Vol. 70, No. 8, Aug 2005, p. 61

Weiss, S. Merrill. Issues in Advanced Television Technology. Boston: Focal Press, 1996


THE ESSAY ARCHIVES ARE NOW PART OF THE SITE! PLEASE CLICK HERE TO REACH THE ARCHIVES PAGE FOR THE 2003, 2004 AND EARLIER 2005 ESSAYS.



Comments? Questions? Send an e-mail to: 4dorothyb@dorothyswebsite.org

jordan 6 sport blue louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet kate spade outlet jordan 3 sport blue louis vuitton outlet sport blue 6s Cheap Oakley Sunglasses sport blue 6s louis vuitton outlet cheap jordans cheap air jordans coach factory outlet legend blue 11s Sport blue 14s jordan 6 sport blue louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet sport blue 3s wolf grey 3s